“Who was going to tell this boy that he was going to play for Madrid?”

first_imgOn April 20, 2013, José Mourinho debuted a 21-year-old young midfielder with the Real Madrid first team. It was against Betis, on day 32 of LaLiga Santander. Before, he had already debuted with Castilla, with whom he had played the initial stretch of the season. Since then, seven years of success have passed and Casemiro wanted to remember it on his Twitter account. The Brazilian midfielder published an image of his early years in the world of soccer, when he played for Moreira Sport. In addition, it has added the following text: “Who was going to tell this boy that he was going to debut with Real Madrid. Seven years already …“The hastagh Hala Madrid added to this message.Since then, he has worn the first team elastic a total of 229 times, he has scored a total of 22 goals and has distributed 17 assists. Beyond statistics, the Brazilian midfielder has been the protagonist in the golden age of Champions. He has four on his record, one League, a Cup of the King, three Mundialitos, two Super cups from Spain, two of Europe and still many years ahead.last_img read more

Trackers get win in front of packed North Peace Arena

first_imgIn the second period, both teams looked impressive in what would turn out to be an incredibly close game. Just under twelve minutes into the frame, Connor Bowie scored an unassisted goal to get his thirteenth of the season to give the Trackers a 2-1 lead. In the third period, Craig-Steele then fired in his second of the game on a drop pass from Joel Bourgeois just 28 seconds after the puck dropped. Keenan Halverson got the second assist on the Trackers’ third goal as the initial playmaker. The Trackers looked sharp, but later in the third South Side started to increase their pressure. Brandon Clark made a series of phenomenal saves late in the frame as Edmonton pulled their goaltender for the extra attacker. Despite being shorthanded in a sense, the Trackers managed to shut the door and get the win 3-1.Head coach David Johnston says that despite the initial nerves of playing in front of such a large crowd, the team put in an excellent effort for the entire game. “That’s two back-to-back weekends, probably our best two sixty minute efforts of the year. Like I said to the guys here post-game, this is a tough time of year to stay focused. It’s a real grind time for elite hockey, with the work that they’ve done up to this point and with the distraction of Christmas a short time away. It’s a really tough time of year to keep your players focused and our kids have just done an exceptional job of staying focused. We were just a real good team today.”Advertisement The Trackers are back in action next week for a pair of makeup games against the Whitecourt Wolverines. The Trackers take to the ice next Tuesday at 7:30 p.m., and again at 4:30 Wednesday afternoon. Both games will be streamed live on the Trackers’ Ustream page: http://www.ustream.tv/channel/nebctrackers. Joel Bourgeois gets some encouragement from the crowd. Photo by Chris Newton – Advertisement -South Side struck first near the midway mark of the first period with a garbage goal. The Trackers however managed to get a bit of a garbage goal of their own three seconds later. Aiden Craig-Steele put the puck into the back of the net after Cooper Beamish made the initial shot to even the score at one apiece. Photo by Tracy Hammond. FORT ST. JOHN, B.C. – The Northeast BC/Yukon Trackers got another game in the win column in front of a packed house at the North Peace Arena this afternoon.Hundreds of students from North Peace Secondary and other area schools got the afternoon off their last day of school before Christmas holidays to see their fellow students take to the ice against the Edmonton South Side Athletic Club. Both teams looked a bit nervous early in the game, as nearly all of them had never played in front of such a large crowd before. Captain Joel Bourgeois explained after the game that, “It’s just unreal, I’ve never experienced anything like it, and it just gives everybody a lot of energy.”center_img Connor Bowie scoring the game winning goal in the Trackers’ noon game last year. Photo by Tracy Hammond Aiden Craig-Steele scoring a goal. Photo by Tracy Hammond Brandon Clark takes a quick breather in the third period. Photo by Tracy Hammond File photo by Tracy Hammond. Photo by Chris Newtonlast_img read more

No pressure! Which Premier League new boy will make the biggest impact on debut this weekend?

first_img 6 6 6 6. Nicolas Otamendi (Manchester City) – City parted with another eye-watering fee to secure the services of the Argentine defender and Manuel Pellegrini will be hoping he has finally identified the long-term centre-back partner for Vincent Kompany. Only Lionel Messi and Cristiano Ronaldo received more than Otamendi’s seven Man of the Match awards in La Liga last season. He may, however, have to fill in at right-back for the league leaders at Palace if Bacary Sagna is sidelined through injury. 5. Michail Antonio (West Ham) – Widely regarded as the best player in the Championship, Antonio snubbed offers from other second tier sides to pursue his Premier League dream. Along with fellow new recruit Victor Moses, he will be expected to inject some pace into the West Ham attack. Can he help the Hammers transfer their stunning away form into a first home win of the season against Newcastle on Monday night? The Premier League returns this weekend after the first international break of the season and, with Manchester United v Liverpool live on talkSPORT on Saturday, it’s fair to say it’s back with a bang.A caveat to this weekend’s set of fixtures will be the prospected debuts of several new signings following the trials and tribulations of transfer deadline day.Premier League clubs splashed out nearly £900m between them during the summer window and a handful of the heftier purchases are in line for their top flight bows over the next few days.But which new signing are you most excited about and who will make the biggest impact? 1. Anthony Martial (Manchester United) – No pressure, kid. The most expensive teenager in history could make his United debut this weekend in traditionally their biggest fixture of the season – Liverpool at home. Could Louis van Gaal be tempted to throw him into the mix straight away? Even the Dutchman admitted earlier this week that the astronomical fee Monaco received for his services was ‘ridiculous.’ Good luck to him. 6 4. Heung-Min Son (Tottenham) – The latest South East Asian import to the Premier League will be hoping to be more Ji-Sung Park than Shinji Kagawa. He was brilliant for Bayer Leverkusen in the Bundesliga, with the physical demands of the German top flight perhaps a good indicator he should settle well in England. Spurs go to lowly Sunderland on Sunday still looking for their first win of the season. 6 3. Kevin De Bruyne (Manchester City) – The most expensive Premier League import of the summer has gone from £18m Chelsea misfit to £54m world-beater in the space of 18 months. Quite a transformation for a man Jose Mourinho shunted for temperamental reasons. The Belgian has a point to prove to more than a few people, and he can make a start during a tricky away fixture at Crystal Palace. 6 2. Virgin van Dijk (Southampton) – This is an intriguing one. Long earmarked as the finest player in the SPL with Celtic, the Dutch centre-back must now make the sizeable step up to Premier League football. A trip to West Brom is a relatively low key introduction for the tall defender but if he can strike up an instant understanding with captain Jose Fonte, Saints might be onto a winning formula. last_img read more

Closing in on a centuryold mystery scientists are figuring out what the

first_img (GRAPHIC) V. ALTOUNIAN/SCIENCE; (DATA) S. STEELE ET AL.; TRENDS IN MOLECULAR MEDICINE, VOL. 22, 921, (2016) Immune cells IL-25 Mucus At about the same time, Locksley and colleagues serendipitously arrived at the same conclusion. He and the other scientists hadn’t even heard of tuft cells when they began their experiments, recalls immunologist Jakob von Moltke, a former UCSF postdoc with Locksley who now runs a lab studying the cells at the University of Washington School of Medicine in Seattle. The group was trying to pin down which cells in the intestinal lining pump out interleukin-25 (IL-25), a protein signal that helps the body defend against parasites but also promotes allergy symptoms and asthma.The researchers analyzed intestinal tissues from mice genetically modified so that any cells making IL-25 also produced a red fluorescent protein. A few bright cells stood out, and antibodies specific for different kinds of intestinal cells revealed their identity. “That’s when we went and looked up what a tuft cell is,” von Moltke says. A third group led by researchers from France simultaneously discovered an antiparasite role for tuft cells in the intestine.The teams ultimately demonstrated that tuft cells are crucial for the body’s “weep and sweep” defense against parasites. In that mechanism, mucus-producing goblet cells in the intestinal lining divide rapidly and secrete copiously while muscle cells in the intestinal walls step up their contractions—all to help force the invaders from the body. Tuft cells that sense parasites discharge IL-25 to unleash those responses and stimulate immune cells; genetically altering mice to remove or disable their tuft cells impairs their ability to eliminate parasitic worms, the groups found.The cells strengthen gut defenses against parasites in a second way, as Locksley, von Moltke, and colleagues revealed last year. The responses of tuft cells to one kind of parasite help make it harder for additional parasites to infect the animals.How tuft cells in the intestines detect parasites remained unclear until 2018. It would be fitting if the interlopers tasted bitter to the cells, but intestinal tuft cells don’t rely on bitter taste receptors. Instead, three papers—including two on which von Moltke and Locksley are authors—showed the cells react to succinate, a metabolic molecule that worms and other parasites secrete. Tuft cells have receptors for succinate, but other, unidentified detectors also seem to be involved. Even giving the mice succinate in their water girds their defenses: “When we put the animals on succinate diets, they didn’t get colonized” by parasitic worms, Locksley says.Tuft cells also fend off invaders elsewhere in the body. Studies on rodents have shown that when tuft cells in the urethra recognize bitter or umami molecules or bacterial cells, they activate nerves that spur urination, flushing away potentially harmful microbes. Otolaryngologist Noam Cohen of the University of Pennsylvania and colleagues determined that tuft cells in the nasal passages respond to bitter chemicals and spur neighboring cells to pump out bactericidal proteins. In rodents, but not people, nasal tuft cells can even temporarily halt breathing by stimulating a nerve that connects to the part of the brain that controls respiration. That might help stop inhalation of pathogens—a handy adaptation for animals constantly sticking their noses into dirty corners. Tuft cell Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe While poring over tissue slides in the 1920s, a Soviet microscopist spotted an oddball cell squeezed into the intestinal lining. With its bulbous shape and bristly top knot, it didn’t look like any of its neighbors. He was baffled—and so were later researchers who spotted the same kind of cells in the following decades. What they did was a mystery. “It was amazing to me that this huge piece of biology was out there undiscovered,” says mucosal immunologist Michael Howitt of Stanford University in Palo Alto, California, who began to study those tuft cells, as they are called, in 2011.What was known about them only made the mystery more tantalizing. Some tuft cells display the same chemical-sensing surface proteins that act as taste receptors on the tongue. And the cells station themselves in the linings of many body structures and organs—not only the intestines, but also the lungs, pancreas, gallbladder, urethra, and nasal passages. “Almost any hollow tube in the body has something like a tuft cell,” says immunologist Mark Anderson of the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF). But why would the pancreas or urethra possibly need a sense of taste?Now, a wave of recent research reveals a reason. Tuft cells serve as sentinels along the body’s invasion routes, relying on their sensory capabilities to detect pathogens and allergens that are inhaled or trying to infiltrate in other ways. Although not part of the immune or nervous system—they are a type of epithelial cell—tuft cells interact with those systems to help coordinate protective responses in many parts of the body, scientists have found. Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) Gut interior V. ALTOUNIAN/SCIENCE Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Country Email IL-25center_img MONIA MICHAUD Fluorescent markers identify tuft cells (green) amid other cells of the intestinal villi. Closing in on a century-old mystery, scientists are figuring out what the body’s ‘tuft cells’ do By Mitch LeslieMar. 28, 2019 , 1:00 PM Goblet cell Epithelial cells On the lookout for parasites and likely other pathogens, tuft cells (blue) are stationed among the microvilli-capped cells of the intestinal lining and many other places in the body. Villus Through their interplay with other cell types, tuft cells may confer other benefits as well, such as healing damaged tissues, forestalling cancer, and priming the maturation of certain immune system cells. But tuft cells can also betray us. They foster some cancers; offer a foothold to norovirus, the stomach-churning pathogen that causes more than 600 million cases of food poisoning each year; and help instigate inflammatory conditions such as asthma.The cells haven’t shed all their mysteries. What pathogen molecules tuft cells recognize, which chemical-sensing receptors they deploy, and how much they contribute to certain diseases remain uncertain, for example. Still, their role in defending the body and marshaling other cells suggests that “potentially, they are very important cells,” says UCSF immunologist Richard Locksley.Policing parasitesA clue to their function comes from their resemblance to tufted cells on the skin of fish that detect chemicals in the water, alerting the animals to nearby food or predators. “As mammals went ashore, these cells became internalized,” Locksley says. Besides their signature plume, tuft cells share with their forebears details of their internal structure and an aptitude for detection. They are well equipped to sample their surroundings, carrying receptors for the tastes of bitter, sweet, and umami as well as for other molecules.But researchers knew little about what tuft cells perceive and what benefits they provide until 2016. One study that helped clarify the cells’ function began when Howitt made a disturbing observation. Two years into his postdoc at Harvard University, he was probing potential interactions between tuft cells and intestinal bacteria. If tuft cells were attuned to those microbes, Howitt reasoned, the cells’ numbers might change in germ-free mice. To test that possibility, he counted tuft cells in the intestines of mice born and raised at Harvard’s animal facility in what was intended to be an environment free of infectious microbes and even the natural, helpful bacterial residents of the gut. As he examined intestinal tissue from the mice, however, Howitt noticed single-celled parasitic protozoa called Tritrichomonas muris sculling through the microscope’s field of view. The mice weren’t free of pathogens after all.”My response was not one of glee,” Howitt says. Tuft cells were about 20 times more abundant in the supposedly germ-free mice than in normal rodents. He worried that contamination by the parasite had affected the result and that he would have to start over. But when he and colleagues fed the protozoa-rich intestinal contents of their homegrown mice to parasite-free mice, tuft cell numbers surged. And when the researchers introduced the parasite into germ-free mice whose tuft cells couldn’t sense chemicals, that increase did not occur, implying that tuft cells normally act to detect protozoa, a potential threat, and proliferate. Parasite Tuft enoughTuft cells are odd-looking cells that use tastereceptors and other surface proteins to sensepathogens, then release chemical messengersthat trigger multiple responses.Weep and sweepTuft cells help eliminate gut pathogens by releasing interleukin-25 (IL-25), which stimulates mucus-producinggoblet cells, recruits immune cells, and leads to muscle contractions.TuftlessMice whose tuft cells are missing or impairedproduce less IL-25 than normal mice and havetrouble clearing para- sites from the intestines. The cells’ responsibilities appear to go beyond guard duty. In 2014, Timothy Wang, a gastrointestinal and cancer researcher at Columbia University Medical Center, and colleagues were probing tuft cells’ function by testing genetically modified mice whose tuft cells die when exposed to the diphtheria toxin. To their surprise, dosing the animals with the toxin to eliminate their intestinal tuft cells produced no obvious ill effects. But when the researchers stimulated colitis or triggered other types of intestinal injury in mice lacking tuft cells, the animals quickly perished. Unlike unaltered rodents, those animals could not refurbish their damaged intestines, indicating the cells help orchestrate tissue repair.Another organ in which the cells may perform unexpected jobs is the thymus, where some kinds of immune cells mature and learn not to attack the body’s own tissues. Anderson and colleagues were tracking the varieties of epithelial cells in the part of the thymus where that education takes place when they found “goofy cells with taste receptors” that they didn’t recognize. Anderson then ran into Locksley in a hallway at UCSF, who had a pretty good idea what they were. The cells had a tuft, and an analysis of gene activity confirmed them as the enigmatic cells.After teaming with Locksley and von Moltke, Anderson’s group showed that the thymus’s tuft cells carry surface proteins that are key to teaching young immune cells not to target the body’s own proteins. The team reported its finding in Nature last year, along with a second group that had independently found similar results. The researchers aren’t sure what tuft cells are sensing in the thymus, however.Cancer concernsMuch about the cells remains fuzzy—including the function of the namesake tuft. The cells are most abundant in the gallbladder, but nobody knows what they are doing there. And researchers are still trying to understand the cells’ roles—protective or harmful—in disease. Cancer biologist Kathleen DelGiorno of the Salk Institute for Biological Studies in San Diego, California, notes that in mice, tuft cells appear in the pancreas after it is injured and seem to promote healing. They may prevent lesions, which some patients harbor for many years, from becoming aggressive tumors. “Tuft cells inhibiting the immune system might be one reason why these lesions persist but don’t progress,” DelGiorno says.Yet some work suggests tuft cells in the pancreas are themselves the source of tumors there. And stronger evidence reveals the cells can help instigate tumors in other organs. In their 2014 study, Wang and colleagues studied genetically modified mice whose tuft cells lack the tumor-suppressor gene APC, which is faulty in most people with colon cancer. When the researchers gave the rodents a noxious compound that spurred colitis, the tuft cells began to proliferate and formed colon tumors.”I don’t think tuft cells are the primary source of colon cancer” in humans, Wang says, but they may on occasion spark the growths. The cells may also promote stomach cancer. When Wang and his team gave mice a chemical that induces stomach tumors, the number of tuft cells in the organ surged. Those cells poured out acetylcholine, which serves as a neurotransmitter in the nervous system but also stokes the initial growth of the tumors, the scientists reported in 2017.Other work is now hinting that tuft cells in our respiratory system drive conditions such as asthma, sinus inflammation, and nasal polyps, perhaps by releasing the same immune-stimulating molecules that trigger defenses against parasites.Tuft cells aren’t about to become a major target of medical treatments, but researchers are thinking about ways to harness them. In the nasal passages, for example, prodding tuft cells with bitter molecules might help combat sinus infections. Recent work shows that in mice with Crohn disease, tuft cells are less abundant in the most inflamed portions of the intestine, so stimulating the cells to divide might promote healing. In the airways, by contrast, blocking the cells might help ease asthma and allergy symptoms.It’s too early to say whether discoveries about tuft cells will pay off in medicine. But the recent revelations have dispelled the old view that tuft cells are, as Anderson puts it, just oddities that “medical students get quizzed about.”*Correction, 3 April, 2 p.m.: This story has been edited to remove the statement that tuft cells in nasal passages use IL-25 to stimulate other cells to release antimicrobial production (They appear to use calcium instead)last_img read more