09May Rep. Brann: Memorial highway signs put in place honoring local fallen servicemen Portions of U.S. 131 renamed in the city of WyomingState Rep. Tommy Brann’s law memorializing three Wyoming fallen servicemen went into full effect this week with the posting of highway memorial signs along U.S. 131.The portion between exits 78 and 79 will be known as the Army Spc. Eric T. Burri Memorial Highway. The portion between exits 79 and 80 will be known as the Marine Cpl. Ross A. Smith Memorial Highway, and the segment between exits 80 and 81 will be the Army Pfc. Nicholas H. Blodgett Memorial Highway.“All three servicemen who grew up in Wyoming will be honored back home for their ultimate sacrifice and bravery,” said Brann, of Wyoming. “We will never forget them.”House Bill 6025, now Public Act 568 was signed into law last December by former Gov. Rick Snyder.#### Categories: Brann News
Reviewed by James Ives, M.Psych. (Editor)Apr 27 2019The sight of a dog in a therapy vest trotting down a hospital hallway or being petted by a child lying in a hospital bed is familiar to many, yet the scientific research showing the impact of therapy animals is largely anecdotal, says Vanderbilt University School of Nursing Professor Mary Jo Gilmer, PhD, FAAN. Her work is changing that.Gilmer studies the impact animals can have on children with life-threatening conditions. She recently received a grant from nonprofit Human Animal Bond Research Institute (HABRI) for a pilot program investigating the health benefits of human-animal interactions (HAIs) in reducing suffering of children with cancer undergoing debilitating treatments.”In this carefully designed research, we are evaluating the effects of human-animal interactions on reducing anxiety, depression, worry and pain, and increasing quality of life in children with advanced cancer, as well as their parents,” Gilmer said. “The goal is to obtain strong data to support the positive health benefits of HAIs in decreasing suffering of children, particularly those diagnosed with advanced cancer.”For the study, children are randomly assigned to a group receiving usual care or a group receiving usual care plus HAI. The human-animal interactions include interfacing with a therapy dog registered with Pet Partners, a national organization with strict standards that promote health and wellness benefits of HAI.Then a registered canine team visits for 10-15 minutes during each child’s potentially anxiety-producing hospital or clinic appointments, which occur approximately every week. After being introduced to the dog, the child and parents participate in activities such as petting the dog, taking it on a walk or teaching it new tricks.Children and their parents or guardians complete measures of stress/anxiety, depression and quality of life at the start of the project and then at every interaction for three months.Related StoriesResearchers identify gene mutations linked to leukemia in children with Down’s syndromeStudy reveals link between inflammatory diet and colorectal cancer riskWhy Mattresses Could be a Health Threat to Sleeping Children”During the course of treatment, children with cancer may experience a variety of threats to their quality of life. Impaired communication, anxiety and stress, long-term hospitalization and isolation affect children’s psychological well-being,” Gilmer said. “Frequently, they experience pain, dyspnea, nausea, drowsiness and fatigue. The complexity of these factors compound the already difficult task children face in effectively coping with their disease. There’s a critical need for novel, yet rigorous research that can mitigate physical distress and improve quality of life for these children with serious illnesses.”Gilmer believes that the study’s results will provide a strong foundation for full-scale testing of human-animal interventions among children receiving treatment for cancer; the results will also identify characteristics of those most likely to benefit.The study builds off Gilmer’s previous research, which showed the benefit of human-animal interactions on children newly diagnosed with cancer and their parents. That study, published in the Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing, showed that regular visits from a therapy dog contributed to positive psychosocial benefits to families of children during the initial stages of pediatric cancer treatment.”HABRI is proud to be supporting research focused on the potential for human-animal interactions to benefit children with an advanced disease and their families,” said Steven Feldman, Executive Director of HABRI. “HABRI hopes that the results of this study will build on existing science that demonstrates that interaction with companion animals can aid in the healing process, and serve as a valuable tool for alleviating anxiety and stress for these deserving patients and their families.” Source:https://ww2.mc.vanderbilt.edu/
Legal scholar Shawn Bayer has shown that anyone can confer legal personhood on a computer system, by putting it in control of a limited liability corporation in the U.S. If that maneuver is upheld in courts, artificial intelligence systems would be able to own property, sue, hire lawyers and enjoy freedom of speech and other protections under the law. In my view, human rights and dignity would suffer as a result. The corporate loopholeGiving AIs rights similar to humans involves a technical lawyerly maneuver. It starts with one person setting up two limited liability companies and turning over control of each company to a separate autonomous or artificially intelligent system. Then the person would add each company as a member of the other LLC. In the last step, the person would withdraw from both LLCs, leaving each LLC – a corporate entity with legal personhood – governed only by the other’s AI system.That process doesn’t require the computer system to have any particular level of intelligence or capability. It could just be a sequence of “if” statements looking, for example, at the stock market and making decisions to buy and sell based on prices falling or rising. It could even be an algorithm that makes decisions randomly, or an emulation of an amoeba.Reducing human statusGranting human rights to a computer would degrade human dignity. For instance, when Saudi Arabia granted citizenship to a robot called Sophia, human women, including feminist scholars, objected, noting that the robot was given more rights than many Saudi women have. Sophia, a robot granted citizenship in Saudi Arabia. Credit: MSC/wikimedia, CC BY In certain places, some people might have fewer rights than nonintelligent software and robots. In countries that limit citizens’ rights to free speech, free religious practice and expression of sexuality, corporations – potentially including AI-run companies – could have more rights. That would be an enormous indignity. Provided by The Conversation An interview with Sophia, a robot citizen of Saudi Arabia. The risk doesn’t end there: If AI systems became more intelligent than people, humans could be relegated to an inferior role – as workers hired and fired by AI corporate overlords – or even challenged for social dominance.Artificial intelligence systems could be tasked with law enforcement among human populations – acting as judges, jurors, jailers and even executioners. Warrior robots could similarly be assigned to the military and given power to decide on targets and acceptable collateral damage – even in violation of international humanitarian laws. Most legal systems are not set up to punish robots or otherwise hold them accountable for wrongdoing.What about voting?Granting voting rights to systems that can copy themselves would render humans’ votes meaningless. Even without taking that significant step, though, the possibility of AI-controlled corporations with basic human rights poses serious dangers. No current laws would prevent a malevolent AI from operating a corporation that worked to subjugate or exterminate humanity through legal means and political influence. Computer-controlled companies could turn out to be less responsive to public opinion or protests than human-run firms are.Immortal wealthTwo other aspects of corporations make people even more vulnerable to AI systems with human legal rights: They don’t die, and they can give unlimited amounts of money to political candidates and groups. Artificial intelligences could earn money by exploiting workers, using algorithms to price goods and manage investments, and find new ways to automate key business processes. Over long periods of time, that could add up to enormous earnings – which would never be split up among descendants. That wealth could easily be converted into political power. Politicians financially backed by algorithmic entities would be able to take on legislative bodies, impeach presidents and help to get figureheads appointed to the Supreme Court. Those human figureheads could be used to expand corporate rights or even establish new rights specific to artificial intelligence systems – expanding the threats to humanity even more. Explore further Humans aren’t the only people in society – at least according to the law. In the U.S., corporations have been given rights of free speech and religion. Some natural features also have person-like rights. But both of those required changes to the legal system. A new argument has laid a path for artificial intelligence systems to be recognized as people too – without any legislation, court rulings or other revisions to existing law. This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Read the original article. Citation: Could an artificial intelligence be considered a person under the law? (2018, October 5) retrieved 17 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-10-artificial-intelligence-person-law.html Why technology puts human rights at risk This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.